A solid-state battery is a battery with storage cells in which the solid, as opposed to the liquid, electrolyte, is an electrochemically active or reactive substance. This term is typically applied to lithium-ion battery cells. Lithium-ion batteries are batteries based on the reactions of lithium ions, which are stored in a liquid electrolyte.
Similarities between Solid-state and Lithium-ion Batteries
They both use lithium-ion technology and have a cathode (the battery’s positive side), an anode (its negative side), and an electrolyte. Both types of batteries are rechargeable and will last longer each time they are charged.
Significant Differences Between Solid-state and Lithium-ion Batteries
Since the electrolyte of a solid-state battery is an active material, it has a greater capacity than the electrolyte in a lithium-ion battery. Solid-state batteries have a longer life than lithium-ion batteries. Solid-state batteries won’t explode or catch fire when overcharged, unlike lithium-ion batteries.
Lithium-ion batteries can catch fire and explode when they’re overcharged. The electrolyte in a lithium-ion battery is flammable, whereas the electrolyte in a solid-state battery is not flammable. Solid-state batteries are safer to use and can be made more compact than lithium-ion batteries.
Solid-state batteries are lighter than lithium-ion batteries and can be made in various shapes and sizes. While the liquid inside a lithium-ion battery makes it heavier, a solid state lithium battery has a compact structure to maximize energy density per unit area, requiring fewer cells.
A solid-state cell can be produced by simply melting electrolyte granules into a plastic form. At the same time, the same reaction cannot be performed with liquid solutions or cells used in lithium-ion batteries. Although solid-state batteries cost more than lithium-ion cells, they offer many advantages, such as a longer life span and safer electrolytes, which means fewer replacements will be needed. Solid-state cells are thin and delicate, which makes them prone to cracking. Because of this, fabricating solid-state batteries is more expensive than fabricating lithium-ion ones – about eight times more expensive.
Solid-state batteries are commonly used in laptop computers. They are more compact and take up less space than lithium-ion batteries because they don’t need casing. The most common solid-state battery is the lithium-ion battery, found in mobile phones and laptops. In addition, the solid-state electrolyte allows for smaller sizes, which means a solid-state cell can be made to fit a three-dimensional form or space than a lithium cell.
Lithium-ion batteries can only be recharged, but solid-state batteries can be recharged and discharged multiple times. Future applications of solid-state batteries could make them rechargeable. For instance, in 2007, researchers from the University of California, Irvine (UCI) created a lithium metal battery using liquid electrolytes. The battery was charged at 500 milliamp hours per hour and lasted for 2,000 charge and discharge cycles.
Solid-state batteries can provide more energy than lithium-ion batteries. Solid-state batteries can offer greater power and efficiency while using fewer materials than lithium-ion batteries. The higher voltage of solid-state cells allows them to discharge more enormous amounts of power faster than lithium-ion cells.
Solid-state batteries don’t have liquid inside, so they can’t spill, and they are more impact resistant than lithium-ion batteries. This means that solid-state cells would be able to withstand shock better.
The electrolyte in a solid-state battery can be recycled and reused multiple times, unlike the electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries.
The Difficulty in Mass Producing Solid-state Batteries
A lot of work needs to be done to make solid-state batteries more efficient and competitive. Right now, solid-state cells are prone to cracking as they are thin and fragile. They also need better cooling, so they don’t melt or catch fire. One possible way to make them more efficient would be to use carbon anodes to trap oxygen instead of the liquid the electrolyte is made from, making them lighter and more durable.
Even though solid-state batteries are currently more expensive to produce, they offer a long life span and excellent reliability than lithium-ion batteries. If these issues can be overcome, solid-state batteries could potentially replace liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries.